Carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide or CO2) is colourless gas characterised by acidic taste and smell and widely spread in the nature.
Carbon dioxide occurs in three aggregate states: gas, liquid and solid. At low temperature (-78.5 oC), carbon dioxide changes from solid state to gas or from gas to solid state (also called dry ice) by missing the medium liquid state. The liquid state is obtained only under the impact of atmospheric pressure higher than 6 and remains liquid in case of 37 °C to -57 °C temperature.
The clients buying a considerable amount of carbon dioxide are supplied with special storage tank for the product and liquid carbon dioxide is delivered with semitrailers.
Fields of industry
Carbon dioxide is used for cooling and freezing food products as well as in order to keep their taste and texture without any changes as long as possible and to reduce the amount of natural and artificial preservatives. Carbon dioxide used in food industry is the main ingredient of carbonated beverages (soda drinks, beer, sparkling wine). Carbon dioxide is used as natural rising (fluffing-up) product replacement in pastry. It is widely used in MAP packages.
Liquid carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) is used as protection in smelting active and rare metals and their alloys, aluminium, aluminium and magnesium alloys, stainless, heat-resistant chromium and nickel alloys and treated steel of various types.
Carbon dioxide is filled to fire-extinguishers – it is an effective mean for fire-fighting, because carbon dioxide does not pollute the environment and cools down hot materials.
Production of dry ice
Dry ice is produced by reducing the pressure and rapidly evaporating liquid carbon dioxide. At the temperature of -78 °C, the ice is pressed into blocks, plates or pellets. Density of dry ice – up to 1,600 kg/m3, the production of cold – approx. 600 kJ/kg.
Neutralisation of alkaline wastewater
Pursuant to the EU Directives, alkaline wastewater generated in various fields of industrial production should be neutralised. Carbon dioxide is a more economic and ecologic alternative than ordinary mineral acids.
Unprotected skin contact with liquid carbon dioxide can cause cryogenic frostbites. The places of production should be ventilated. More information on safe handling of carbon dioxide is provided in the material safety data sheet.